and Mystic Alphabets
~ Runic Alphabets
The Elder Futhark
The oldest and most common of the runic alphabets
is the Germanic or Elder Futhark. This system may have begun
as early as 200 B.C.E. The Elder Futhark contains 24 letters
divided into three groups of eight, called Ætt (aettir,
plural). The first eight is called Freyja's Ætt, the
second Heimdall's Ætt and the third Tyr's Ætt.
A rune is not merely a letter in an old Germanic alphabet,
but it bears the primary definition of "secret" or "mysteries." There
were many different runic alphabets in use throughout Northern
Europe over the centuries. This "runic alphabet" got
its name after the sound of what is traditionally held to be
the six first runes in this "alphabet":
F - U - <TH> - A - R - K
The Anglo - Saxon runes had their own unique development
from 700 AD to 1200 AD. These runes are very beautiful inscriptions.
A number of extra letters were added to the Runic alphabet
to write Anglo-Saxon/Old English. Runes were probably bought
to Britain in the 5th century by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes
and Frisians (collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons), and
were used until about the 11th century.
Runic inscriptions are mostly found on jewellery, weapons, stones and
other objects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts have
Runes appear to have been a major part of ancient Norse religion.
Runes werewidely used by the Scandinavians shamans to heal
the sick and tell the future. Runes have also been found carved
into walls and on walking staffs, it is thought for protection
and guidance. Runes have been mentioned in early Anglo Saxon
poetry and legend as a key to wisdom. Runic symbols have been
also used as a talisman for warriors. Runic symbols cover a
variety of archetypes and ideas, many to do with agricultural
and battle symbols.
This runic alphabet appears in the Welsh druidic text The
Barddas. Its 39 characters include sounds that have both
single- and multiple-letter Latin alphabet equivalents. The
single-letter equivalents are mapped to lower-case keys;
multiple-letter equivalents and long vowels are mapped to
upper-case keys. Included with the font are three separating
marks and the pentagram glyph known as "The God-form
in the pentagram", which is the symbol of the god Ang,
constructed from the combination of the A and the Ng runes.
This Runic alphabet is not related to Germanic Runes, they derive from
the Orkhon or Turkic Runic (Kök Turki) script. They were usually written
on sticks in boustrophedon style (alternating direction right to left and
then left to right). In some respect they are more suitable for writing
hungarian than the latin alphabet, because it includes separate letters
for all the phonemes of Hungarian. Also note that it does not contain the
so called "foreign letters": dz, dzs, q, w, x and y; which only
appear in foreign words' hungarianization.
Danish or Gullskoen runes
Younger Futhork or "Normal Runes" gradually evolved
Elder Futhark over a period of many years and stabilized
by about 800 A.D., the beginning of the Viking Age. It was
the main alphabet in Norway, Sweden and Denmark throughout
the Viking Age, but was replaced by the Latin alphabet by
about 1200 as a result of the conversion of most of Scandinavia
Three slightly different versions of the alphabet developed in Denmark,
Sweden and Norway
Pecti- Wita is a solitary tradition. It is thought of as "Scottish
Wicca". It doesn’t practice circle consecration,
or the formalized rituals of most other Wiccan traditions.
The basic tools of the Pecti Witan is the dirk and staff,
and rather than casting a circle, he or she simply “centers” themselves.
Magick is very much a part of the tradition and there are
some celebrations of the seasons namely at Samhuinn, Feill-Fionnain,
Bealltainn, and Feill-Sheathain. Healing is also an important
part of this tradition as is herbal lore and divination.
Investigations in Scotland could not unearth any background
or proof as to a heritiage.
Ancient Celtic carvings frequently carry spiral motifs.
They have been linked to representing the cosmos in several
A single spiral is thought to represent the Sun. A clockwise spiral represents
the winter Sun; anti-clockwise, the summer Sun. It is not known whether
the Picts actually had a written language. The lack of surviving records
suggests they did not. They were thought to have spoken a Celtic language
of the same grouping as Welsh and Breton.
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