Ancient and Mystic Alphabets ~ Runic Alphabets


The Elder Futhark

The oldest and most common of the runic alphabets is the Germanic or Elder Futhark. This system may have begun as early as 200 B.C.E. The Elder Futhark contains 24 letters divided into three groups of eight, called Ætt (aettir, plural). The first eight is called Freyja's Ætt, the second Heimdall's Ætt and the third Tyr's Ætt. A rune is not merely a letter in an old Germanic alphabet, but it bears the primary definition of "secret" or "mysteries." There were many different runic alphabets in use throughout Northern Europe over the centuries. This "runic alphabet" got its name after the sound of what is traditionally held to be the six first runes in this "alphabet":
F - U - <TH> - A - R - K

Anglo-Saxon runes

The Anglo - Saxon runes had their own unique development from 700 AD to 1200 AD. These runes are very beautiful inscriptions. A number of extra letters were added to the Runic alphabet to write Anglo-Saxon/Old English. Runes were probably bought to Britain in the 5th century by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians (collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons), and were used until about the 11th century.
Runic inscriptions are mostly found on jewellery, weapons, stones and other objects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts have survived.

Norse runes

Runes appear to have been a major part of ancient Norse religion. Runes werewidely used by the Scandinavians shamans to heal the sick and tell the future. Runes have also been found carved into walls and on walking staffs, it is thought for protection and guidance. Runes have been mentioned in early Anglo Saxon poetry and legend as a key to wisdom. Runic symbols have been also used as a talisman for warriors. Runic symbols cover a variety of archetypes and ideas, many to do with agricultural and battle symbols.

Barddas Runes

This runic alphabet appears in the Welsh druidic text The Barddas. Its 39 characters include sounds that have both single- and multiple-letter Latin alphabet equivalents. The single-letter equivalents are mapped to lower-case keys; multiple-letter equivalents and long vowels are mapped to upper-case keys. Included with the font are three separating marks and the pentagram glyph known as "The God-form in the pentagram", which is the symbol of the god Ang, constructed from the combination of the A and the Ng runes.

Hungarian Runes

This Runic alphabet is not related to Germanic Runes, they derive from the Orkhon or Turkic Runic (Kök Turki) script. They were usually written on sticks in boustrophedon style (alternating direction right to left and then left to right). In some respect they are more suitable for writing hungarian than the latin alphabet, because it includes separate letters for all the phonemes of Hungarian. Also note that it does not contain the so called "foreign letters": dz, dzs, q, w, x and y; which only appear in foreign words' hungarianization.

Danish or Gullskoen runes

Younger Futhork or "Normal Runes" gradually evolved Elder Futhark over a period of many years and stabilized by about 800 A.D., the beginning of the Viking Age. It was the main alphabet in Norway, Sweden and Denmark throughout the Viking Age, but was replaced by the Latin alphabet by about 1200 as a result of the conversion of most of Scandinavia to Christianity.
Three slightly different versions of the alphabet developed in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Pecti-Wita runes

Pecti- Wita is a solitary tradition. It is thought of as "Scottish Wicca". It doesn’t practice circle consecration, or the formalized rituals of most other Wiccan traditions. The basic tools of the Pecti Witan is the dirk and staff, and rather than casting a circle, he or she simply “centers” themselves. Magick is very much a part of the tradition and there are some celebrations of the seasons namely at Samhuinn, Feill-Fionnain, Bealltainn, and Feill-Sheathain. Healing is also an important part of this tradition as is herbal lore and divination. Investigations in Scotland could not unearth any background or proof as to a heritiage.

Pict-swirl runes

Ancient Celtic carvings frequently carry spiral motifs. They have been linked to representing the cosmos in several cultures.
A single spiral is thought to represent the Sun. A clockwise spiral represents the winter Sun; anti-clockwise, the summer Sun. It is not known whether the Picts actually had a written language. The lack of surviving records suggests they did not. They were thought to have spoken a Celtic language of the same grouping as Welsh and Breton.

 
 
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